With Arduino (or AVR in general for that matter) you sometimes have the need to execute some code at regular intervals. A timed interrupt routine is the proper solution, but the Arduino IDE doesn’t come with standard code for this and it can be quite complicated for those who are unfamiliar with directly programming the hardware.
I created a simple proof of concept code that runs on AVR-type Arduino’s and uses a timed interrupt to time exact 1 ms, based on the 16MHz system clock. Thus 1000 counts equals 1 second with the same accuracy as the system clock. As proof the standard LED on pin 13 will start to blink in a 0.5Hz rhythm, one second on, one second off.
Timer0 and Timer1 are commonly used for the Arduino and third party libraries, so that leaves us with Timer2. Arduino’s system clock runs at 16MHz. Timer2 is clocked through a prescaler, this basically means that the system clock is first divided before it is fed to the Timer/Counter. I selected a 128 prescaler by configuring TCCR2B. This means the Timer/Counter is clocked at 16MHz / 128 = 125kHz.
Next I decided to make Timer/Counter2 compare to a set value 125 by setting OCR2A to 125 and configuring ‘Clear Timer on Compare’-bit in TCCR2A. This results in an exact 1kHz interrupt. TIMSK2 is configured to enable the Timer/Counter2 CompareA interrupt. Then all that is left is to attach the interrupt to some code, which is done with the ISR( TIMER2_COMPA_vect ) command. The Interrupt Service Routine counts to 1000 and so we arrive at 1 second ticks which can be used in the main loop to make the LED blink.